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The principal current use of propylene glycol dinitrate is as a propellant in Otto Fuel II , together with 2-nitrodiphenylamine and dibutyl sebacate.
Otto Fuel II is used in some torpedoes as a propellant. Nitrates of polyhydric alcohols , of which propylene glycol dinitrate is an example, have been used in medicine for the treatment of angina pectoris , and as explosives since the mid-nineteenth century.
PGDN affects blood pressure , causes respiratory toxicity, damages liver and kidneys , distorts vision, causes methoglobinuria , and can cause headache and lack of coordination.
It may be absorbed through skin. Its primary toxicity mechanism is methemoglobinemia. It may cause permanent nerve damage. For occupational exposures, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit at 0.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the key on a computer keyboard, see Page Up and Page Down keys.
Propane-1,2-diyl dinitrate; 1,2-Bis nitrooxy propane. LD 50 median dose. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. The digital adaptive equalizer contains two filter blocks, i.
The IIR filter receives the digitized samples of a received analog signal e. Preferably, the IIR includes a programmable set of coefficients, wherein each programmable set of coefficients represents a different IIR filter.
The particular set of coefficients to be programmed and thus the particular IIR filter is chosen, e. The error estimation algorithm detects which IIR filter would be optimum for use given a current set of conditions.
The error estimation algorithm may be operated as often as necessary, e. A filter selector block selects a desired set of coefficients corresponding to the best IIR filter.
The coefficients may be programmed into volatile memory e. Alternatively, the coefficients may be hardwired into the IIR filter.
The back end of the digital adaptive equalizer contains an adaptive finite impulse response FIR filter.
In the disclosed embodiment, the FIR filter uses a least mean square LMS algorithm for adaptation to the unknown or changed T1 or E1 transmission channel or medium.
A restored T1 or E1 signal is output from the FIR filter, and thus from the digital adaptive equalizer, in accordance with the principles of the present invention.
In particular, in FIG. The front end includes an analog portion a and a digital portion b. The principles of the present invention relate equally to data transmission techniques and data rates other than those specifically at T1 or E1 rates.
In the case of a T1 i. Similarly, in the case of an E1 i. Of course, the present invention relates equally to sample sizes other than those of the disclosed exemplary embodiment, e.
An interpolator in the digital portion b of the front end interpolates the signals from the equalizer into an interpolated output signal having a much faster output sampling rate.
For example, the exemplary interpolator interpolates and outputs samples at 96 times the T1 or E1 rate i.
The output of the interpolator is passed to a timing recovery stage to achieve the requirements e. In particular, the digital adaptive equalizer includes an infinite impulse response IIR filter , followed by a filter selector , and then by a finite impulse response FIR filter The IIR filter in the disclosed embodiment is a 7 th order filter.
The IIR filter effectively opens the signal eye-diagram of the received digitized data signal. The filter selector selects the optimum IIR filter, and programs the related coefficients into the IIR filter based on that selection.
The filter selector also performs timing and process control for the equalizer , and converts the 9-bit output from the IIR filter into 8-bit samples for use by the FIR filter The adaptive FIR filter includes a finite impulse response filter having, e.
In the disclosed embodiment, the adaptive FIR filter utilizes a least mean squares LMS fit, and completes the equalization of the input data samples.
In a specific application, four separate sets of coefficients are available for use by the IIR filter , effectively transforming the IIR filter into any one of four different IIR filters without requiring a physical hardware change.
The filter selector tests each of the possible IIR filters, and selects at that time the particular IIR filter which yields the least error in the filter selector The output of the selected IIR filter is passed to the adaptive FIR filter , which improves the total equalization of the received data signal.
The coefficient registers are selected by the filter selector , and the selected coefficient set is loaded into the IIR core In the disclosed embodiment, only one set of coefficients are loaded into the IIR filter core at any one time, as selected by the 2 bit wide selector bus SDOUT from the filter selector Preferably, the available sets of coefficients for the IIR filter are loaded into the coefficients register area prior to startup of the equalization process.
In the disclosed embodiment, the IIR filter implements the following equations: Input samples are loaded into 8-bit registers — constituting an input delay line.
Output samples are loaded into output 9-bit registers — constituting an output feedback delay line. Multiplication operations are performed in the various multipliers — , and the results are appropriately summed in summer , to ultimately arrive at the desired equations for the IIR filter In particular, as shown in FIG.
The PGA converts the 9-bit input signal from the IIR filter into an 8-bit output signal, the error estimator calculates the total absolute error of the current IIR filter, and the peak detector detects the maximum value of the input IIR filtered data signal.
In particular, the PGA includes a multiplexer which selects eight bits from the 9-bit input IIR filtered data samples, depending upon on the value of the maximum data sample detected by the peak detector The PGA includes a divide by 2 block , and a least significant bit block, each fed into and selected by the multiplexer The peak detector stores the value of the maximum data sample detected in the 9-bit register The peak detector includes a comparator to compare an input 9-bit data sample to a currently established maximum data value maintained in a 9-bit register The most significant 8 bits of the maximum value are selected in block , which is divided by 2 in divider The error estimator includes a slicer , a summer , an absolute value determiner , another summer , a bit register , a comparator , and another bit register The error estimator calculates the total absolute error by comparing the input IIR filtered data sample to a sliced version of the same signal as follows.
The slicer in the error estimator creates the sliced signal from the maximum value detected. The threshold of the slicer is equal to the maximum value divided by two i.
The error estimator stores the total absolute error detected using each of the available IIR filters e. After each of the available IIR filters are tested, the error estimator and the control block outputs the selection of the IIR filter providing the least absolute error.
In operation, the filter selector waits samples for the IIR filter transient to be completed. The next data samples are used by the peak detector to find the maximum value of the input IIR filtered data, and the last data samples are used by the error estimator to calculate the total absolute error.
In particular, as shown in FIGS. As shown in FIG. In the implementation of FIGS. The remaining eight bits are used to store the small corrections to the coefficients — , and thus adaptively adjusts the FIR filter The FIR filter preferably includes an adaptive algorithm, e.
The FIR filter outputs 8-bit samples, and implements the following equations. In particular, the slicer implements the following equations: The coefficients — in FIG.
The step size in the adaptive FIR filter is a number always lower than one, e.